via: The New Republic
Stop me if you have heard this one before. A group of citizens are unhappy with the government. A viral communications network is born, spreading words of dissent throughout the land. The authorities crack down with a vengeance. This may sound like the story of a Twitter or Facebook “revolution” in some repressive corner of the world. In fact, it is a tale of how illicit poetry spread through the streets of eighteenth-century Paris.
I admit at the outset that I do not know a lot about eighteenth-century Paris, unlike Robert Darnton, who seems to know a great deal. It is as a student of communications networks and their social and political implications that I presume to write about Darnton’s thought-provoking and uncannily relevant book. In his new study, Darnton demonstrates that even in a semi-literate society, information can travel far and fast. He challenges us to re-examine our assumptions about today’s new and “unprecedented” information universe. As he rightly observes in the book’s introduction, “The marvels of communication technology in the present have produced a false consciousness about the past—even a sense that communication has no history, or had nothing of importance to consider before the days of television and the Internet.”
Poetry and the Police begins in 1749, when politically controversial poems swept through Paris. A police lieutenant was sent out to nab the dissident author of an ode with the line, “Monstre dont la noire furie,”or “Monster whose black fury.” The monster in question was Louis XV, and referring to him in such terms was an act of lèse majesté. (A little less than two centuries later Osip Mandelstam wrote a similarly irreverent—and personally catastrophic—poem comparing Stalin’s mustache to the bristles of a cockroach.) Tracing the origins of the poem was no simple matter. The poem had crossed paths with several others, and each took its own route. The verses were copied on pieces of paper, dictated, memorized, or sung to the tune of popular songs.
The police deployed a legion of spies to get to the bottom of the matter. They interrogated a medical student who had recited the poem, and he identified the individual who gave the poem to him. A string of arrests followed, ultimately filling the cells of the Bastille with fourteen individuals accused of taking part in unauthorized poetry recitals. (The incident is thus known as “The Affair of the Fourteen”.) The poem was apparently passed along by a relatively young group of students, clerks, and priests. The original author was never found.
Patrick Meier at iRevolution has a brief, interesting article on the power of information technology to help individuals in areas of limited governance coordinate actions to fulfill needs traditionally met by governments. This is exactly what I was talking about in my post on local manufacturing. As Meier succinctly puts it, "[T]he resulting map is often not as profound as the social capital generated between the dozens, often hundreds, of people collaborating on a live crisis map. In turn, this social capital facilitates mass collective action. In other words, social capital is fungible." Technology is useful as a way of empowering individuals and groups to meet their needs without relying on hierarchical, coercive institutions that extract high rents in exchange for services. But, the technology is perhaps more valuable as a means of building social capital which can then be applied to a variety of other situations. Self-actualization is the real goal and the technology serves as an educational tool. This is related to Rebecca Solnit's work researching group behavior during disasters for her book A Paradise Built in Hell. What she found was, contrary to popular belief, in disasters many people actually behave as their best selves, acting more cooperatively and generously than in ordinary life. The possible conclusion from this is that people generally rise or fall to the level of behavior expected or demanded of them in a given situation. Certain scenarios or tools can facilitate pro-social behavior which can lead to self-actualization and the confidence to live without reliance on external support/control structures. This may be kind of a leap, but it's a nice idea at least.